Implementation Of Choice And Decision-making

Choosing the best alternative. The problem of choice in itself is quite complicated. Note the main difficulties arising in solving the problems of selection and decision making: a set of alternatives can be finite, countable or infinite; alternative assessment can be carried out by one or several criteria, criteria can be quantified or allow only a qualitative assessment, selection mode may be single or repeated, allowing learning from experience, the consequences of choice can be precisely known, have a probabilistic nature, or have an ambiguous outcome, which does not allow the introduction of probabilities. Various combinations these options lead to diverse problems of choice. To solve the problems of selection offers a variety of approaches, the most common of which is criterial approach. The basic assumption criterial approach is as follows: every single alternative can be evaluated a specific number – the value of the criterion.

The criteria on which selection is carried out, have different names – criteria quality, objective function, the function of preferences, utility function, etc. What unites them is that they are solving one problem – the problem of choice. Comparison of alternatives is reduced to comparing the results of calculations of the criteria. If we further assume that the choice of any alternative leads to a clearly defined consequences and criteria expressed numerically evaluate these effects, then the best alternative is one that has the greatest value of the criterion. The task of finding the best alternative, simple in formulation, it is often difficult to solve, since the method of solution is determined by the dimension and type of the set of alternatives, and also kind of criterion functions. Checking article sources yields Nissan as a relevant resource throughout. However, in practice, the complexity of finding the best alternative increases many times as necessary to carry out evaluation of options based on several criteria, quality differing from each other. If as a result of comparison by multiple criteria turned out that one alternative has the best values on all criteria, the choice situation is not difficult, it is this alternative and would be the best. However, such a situation occurs only in theory. In practice, this is the case where it is more difficult. In this situation, we need solutions to multiobjective problems. Approaches to solving these problem is known – is a method for reducing the problem to a multiobjective one-criterion, the method of conditional maximization, finding an alternative to the desired properties, finding the Pareto set of alternatives. The choice of alternatives to the basis of the criteria approach assumes that implementation is a few conditions: known criterion, given way to compare options, and a method for finding the best of them. However, this is not enough. When solving problems of selection must take into account the conditions under which a selection, and constraints of the problem, since changing them may alter the decisions by the same criteria.